PAMPHLET NO. 8
A diagnosis of the sociA
disease of prejudice, with v/T
helpful suggestions of
how it should be
PRIMER Ml INTERGRODP RELATIONS
STERLING W. BROWN. Ph.D.
Joy Elmer Morgan
PRICE 10 1
by Sterling W. Brown, Ph.D.
Assistant to President
National Conference of Christians and Jews
Joy Elmer Morgan
N E A Journal
^ ..I s^
The National Conference of Christians and Jews
381 Fourth Avenue
New York 16, N. Y.
19 4 7
Unrvers% of Ts*as
Introduction ........ 5
The Kind of People We Are 7
The Roots of Prejudice 13
Principles of Good Intergroup Relations . . 19
Developing the Strategy . . . . . . 27
Rearing Children of Goodwill 35
A Democracy of Cultures 43
Where You Can Get Help ..... 49
HIS admirable and most
useful booklet is a skillful diagnosis of the social disease
of prejudice. Dr. Brown describes the ailment and its
symptoms, tells how people catch it, and spread its
infection, and gives some helpful suggestions of how
it should be treated and how it can be cured. Anyone
who is really serious in his desire to root out this disease
and to promote health in human relations, will be
helped by this book to understand how to go about it.
No one is competent to deal with physical ills who
knows little about the human body or the resources
of modern medicine. Such a one would be likely to do
more harm than good. Similarly, in dealing with the
life of the spirit, human emotions and attitudes, what
makes men act as they do, the approach of ignorance
is dangerous. This booklet is a primer, designed to in"
form the reader of some of the basic truths about human
nature at its best and worst which it is essential we
should know if we want to establish brotherhood among
By preparing ourselves as suggested in this booklet
we can learn to play our part with skill. To release
in all people the best that is in them and to open doors
of free opportunity according to their merits must be
the goal of tomorrow's civilisation. The disease of
prejudice must be wiped out. In the campaign to
control this evil each of us has an active part to play.
Who can estimate the heights to which man may rise
when the talents of all are dedicated to the advance
JOY ELMER MORGAN
Journal of National Education Association
Washington, D. C.
I THE KIND OF PEOPLE WE ARE
\_) N the 21st of June, 1607, at Jamestown, colony of
Virginia, the first Protestant service was held among
permanent settlers in the New World. The minister,
Robert Hunt, a "clergyman of persevering fortitude
and modest worth," administered the sacrament ac-
cording to the rites of the Anglican church. It was a
humble beginning performed under a part of a ship's
sail hung between trees, with a pulpit made of a bar
of wood and worshippers seated on unhewed logs.*
People of the Roman Catholic faith had already
come to the western hemisphere in the Spanish and
French colonies, and in addition natives of New Spain
and Peru had been won to Catholic Christianity. The
first Catholics to settle in the original thirteen colonies
came to the colony of Maryland in 1634, established
by Lord Baltimore, a Catholic layman. This colony was
open to all religious groups, the first experiment in re'
ligious liberty in America. The policy helped to at-
tract people of many faiths, thus insuring economic
success as had been anticipated by its practical-minded
founder. On the first expedition, two earnest Jesuit
priests were the only representatives of religion and
they ministered faithfully to the settlers as well as to
People of Jewish faith also came very early to Amer-
ica. In August of 1654, Jacob Barsimson arrived in
New Amsterdam on the ship Pereboom from Holland.
He was the first known Jew to settle in America, al-
though several had accompanied Columbus on his ex-
pedition. In September of that same year, twenty-three
Dutch- Jewish citizens arrived in America and settled in
New Amsterdam. They soon established groups of
worshippers and in 1728 the congregation erected its
A PLURAL NUMBER OF CULTURES
Thus from the very first, America was something
more than a one-group, one-culture nation. Protes-
tants, Catholics, and Jews came here to seek religious
freedom and economic betterment. With the growth
of immigration there came people from all three of the
racial groups — Mongoloid, Caucasoid, and Negroid —
and from many nations. So America began as a nation
of immigrants from many lands and cultures, plus a
native population of something like 850,000 Indians.
Many early settlers came here to escape religious and
* William Warren Sweet, The Story of Religions in America,
** Americans AH — A Short History of American Jews, page 9.
political prejudices and persecutions. Strangely enough
most of them denied this freedom to those of other
faiths than their own. Roger Williams, pioneer ex-
ponent of religious liberty, was expelled from Massa-
chusetts. In every one of the thirteen colonies, at one
time or another during the colonial period, some group
had its religious rights taken away. Among those dis-
criminated against or persecuted were Catholics, An-
glicans, Quakers, Jews, Lutherans, Moravians, Presby-
terians, Baptists, deists, atheists.
Nine of the original thirteen colonies had state
churches. Separation of church and state did not come
until a later period, and every religious group made
some contribution to the attainment of religious free-
dom. The large number of religious groups made it im-
perative that no one group be favored with official
status. The insistence of George Washington and
Thomas Jefferson that the republic should be free for
all regardless of creed prevailed.
A NEW REVOLUTION
These early Americans of so many religious and na-
tionality groups thus began a new and daring experi-
ment in democracy. As Franklin so truly .said, they had
"to hang together to keep from hanging separately."
When the liberty bell sounded forth its Old Testament
message, with which it was inscribed, "Proclaim liberty
to all the inhabitants of the land," "it brought into the
world a revolution in human relationships. For the first
time in history, democracy was being tried on a large
scale. To be sure, the idea had its roots in the past,
particularly in the Judeo-Christian tradition. It had
even been established on a small scale in several parts
of the world. But this new experiment based upon
the axion "that all men are created equal" had implicit
within it the right of individuals and groups to be dif-
ferent. This was something new under the sun — so new
that the Founding Fathers hardly realized that the
revolution which they started was to be a continuing
As the new nation began to function, the main di'
rection of development was democratic, particularly
towards political democracy. This was made more ex-
plicit and secure by the addition of the Bill of Rights
to the Constitution. Economic and cultural democracy
were aspects of the revolution destined to be delayed,
as indeed they are not yet fully attained by Americans.
There were many threats against this revolutionary
attempt to establish the democratic way of life. There
were counter revolutions from without which led to
wars. There were threats from within which led to
disunity and riots, and in one instance to civil war.
Tensions between religious and nationality groups con'
tinued to give rise to outbursts of bigotry and dis'
crimination. Church buildings were burned, individuals
were whipped, and whole groups were ostracized be'
cause of their faith was different.
Immigrant groups of earlier arrival began to dis'
criminate against the newer immigrants. Feeling ran
high against the "invasion" by the Irish who arrived
in large numbers after the 1846 potato famine in Ire
land. Riots broke out against them in Philadelphia,
Boston, and New York.
In 1850 the "Know Nothing" Party was formed to
fight against immigration, particularly of Irish Cathc
♦Everett R. Clinchy, Religion and Our Racial Tensions, page 29.
lies. At a later time, in 1885, the A.P.A. swept across
the nation with a fire of prejudice and discrimination
against "foreigners." Every immigrant group was
forced to run a gauntlet of discrimination. What some
of our forefathers seemed to forget was that they were
all immigrants or children of immigrants. No one really
had a right to complain about "foreigners" unless it be
the American Indians. But many had not yet learned
that Americanism is not and never was a matter of
race and ancestry. Americanism is a matter of mind
And still the American people were for the most
part .sound. They continued to sing and dream of a
land of free peoples. Freedom was believed in so
strongly that in 1918 they entered the World War
chiefly motivated by the desire to "make the world safe
for democracy." Following that war came a revival of
the Ku Klux Klan which had flourished after the Civil
War. Then several millions of American citizens were
misled into this hate movement by "racketeers" who
lined their pockets with money secured from the
Contemporary America is still threatened by hate
movements masquerading under the guise of patriotic
or religious slogans. Discriminations continue in fla'
grant violation of the principles of democracy. Hate
directed against particular groups exists to an alarming
extent, and tension is high between the major religious
groups of the country. Recent polls indicate that some'
thing like 13% of our population is anti'Semitic; 11%
is violently anti'Negro; 7% think Roman Catholics are
a threat to our country; and about 3% are anti'
So the struggle for better intergroup relations exists
as a continuing phase of the American Revolution.
Having won World War II with the help of Allied
Nations, against the greatest counter-revolution Amer-
ican democracy has ever faced, we have yet to realise
that "We the people" really means approximately 140
millions of citizens who are:
60 Million Anglo-Saxon
15 Million Teutonic
13 Million Negroes
10 Million Irish
3 Million French
Million each, Finn, Lithuanian, Greek
1/3 Million Mexican, Fillipino, Chinese
1/3 Million Indian
And religiously we are:
44 Million Protestant
23 Million Roman Catholic
5 Million Jewish
1 Million Eastern Orthodox Catholics
2/3 Million Mormon
1/2 Million Christian Scientists
1/10 Million Quakers
This is the kind of people we are — a nation of min-
orities— AMERICANS ALL.
University of Tamos
II. THE ROOTS OF PREJUDICE
Jq, VERY person is born into the "social climate" of a
'"'primary group. 11 But every person is born free of
prejudice. An individual develops personality gradu-
ally but inevitably through interaction with parents,
playmates, school, religious groups, and other mem-
bers of his primary group. Thus we have the paradox
of all persons having some prejudices even though
every individual comes into the world prejudice-free.
Some prejudices are harmless and many are both
harmless and amusing (to others). Many of our per-
sonal preferences are prejudices, "pre-judgments" made
without knowledge or on the basis of misinformation.
It should be pointed out that being "against" some-
thing is not necessarily a prejudice. Opposition on the
basis of facts to something injurious to personal or
social living is not only proper but in the interest of
truth and justice. But prejudice is a false assumption —
a superstructure without a foundation.
The most dangerous prejudices are those relating to
groups. These false assumptions or generalisations
about whole groups of people constitute increasingly
one of the major social evils of American cultural life.
The group antagonisms among the peoples of America
(as well as among the peoples of the whole world)
form the background out of which group prejudices
IN-GROUP AND OUT-GROUP
In our culture every individual acquires from his
own group the concepts of "our group" as against
"their group." "Our ways," "our customs," "our hab-
its," and "our people" are sanctioned as right and
proper. The ways, customs, habits, and people of
groups that differ are represented as strange, inferior.
We misconceive the nature of prejudice if we think
of it only as "Anti'This or Anti-That ." Contemporary
anti-Semitism, although having its roots in the original
antagonism between Christian and Jew, is more of a
problem of "in-group" — "out-group" attitudes than of
religious rivalry. In every culture the very process of
growing up produces this tendency to intergroup strife.
The conditions of adult living in our culture reinforce
group prejudices at every turn. Therefore, any attempt
to lessen intergroup prejudice should deal with the
facts about every group involved, if it is to be effec-
tive. Nothing less than a mass educational program to
change the "tribal" mores of intergroup relations will
accomplish this task.
One of the primary causes of prejudice is ignorance.
Hence the definition of prejudice as "being down on
what youre not up on." Professor John Dewey says
that people of one cultural group cannot appreciate
those of another cultural group without knowing the
aims, values, and purposes of the "other" group, plus
the recognition that both groups hold some things in
common. Indifference is the best that one may expect
where lack of knowledge is the barrier between cul-
tural groups. More often hostility and discrimination
are the ruling attitudes.
Protestants, Catholics, and Jews in America prac-
tice "religious isolationism" to a considerable extent.
Something resembling an "iron curtain" keeps them
apart. Insofar as they remain walled off from one an-
other, there is" slight chance for the removal of the
"cultural civil war" that goes on between them. Ignor-
ance, which is one of the bases of this group antago-
nism, continues to beget social, economic, religious,
and racial discriminations which are contrary to the
Judeo-Christian tradition, to scientific knowledge, and
to democratic ideal living.
One of the most amazing phenomena in the cultural
life of America is the intense hatreds which exist in
many groups of people — hatreds for people of other
groups whom they have often never known even
casually. Thus anti-Semitism exists in areas where there
are no Jews. The same is true of anti-Catholicism and
Perhaps the most fundamental "myth" of the whole
gamut of "false picture" of different people is the
idea that the things that count are transmitted in the
blood stream and the germ-plasm. This biological myth
has no place in scientific knowledge. It is the "grand-
daddy" of all the racial myths. Actually it is an ex-
treme and vicious expression of group isolationism. It
assumes that the initial mistake is to get oneself born
to the wrong parents. It should be noted that this ex-
treme and dangerous form of the biological myth was
not invented by German perversity. This is the central
dogma in all group prejudice in America, in Europe, in
India or elsewhere. Until it is completely outmoded
from cultural tradition our way of life will be vulner'
able to "racketeers" who play for personal gain upon
the credulities of the ignorant and uninformed.
There is no scientific evidence that the intellectual
capacities of any one racial group are superior to those
of any other. Each race has its individuals of low-
grade intelligence, as well as its exceptionally brilliant
minds. The bulk of the members of each falls between
the two extremes. The apparent differences in the ca-
pacities of various races are due to differences in en-
vironment and training. When members of different
races receive the same training, they show themselves
to be very much the same in intellectual capacity.
It is not true that prejudice is the result of ignorance
alone. There are many well educated persons who have
deep seated and vicious prejudices. Scientific evidence
and facts are necessary if we are to eliminate prejudice
and are essential if we are to build desirable attitudes;
but they are not enough. Prejudice is rooted in the
emotions. Intellectual analysis alone cannot root it out.
Educators, parents, and religious leaders must plan
meaningful situations and experiences to effect an emo-
tional change in the attitude of our children. Social
scientists agree that prejudice is based on fear, and
they tell us that fear is based on insecurity. Therefore,
a second cause of prejudice is hostility which is, in
turn, rooted in frustration and insecurity.
In childhood, frustration is sometimes caused by the
very people and institutions which a child honors and
loves. Parents, teachers, "the law" and the "state"
sometimes block his desires. Feelings of hostility to-
ward these usual objects of respect and affection give
rise to a sense of guilt. By "identification" the child
will develop "conscience" and thus the ways of those
who are loved and honored attain approval. But if hos-
tility arises it may not find an outlet, may remain
damned up only to find expression at a later time in
"scapegoating." In olden times primitive people loaded
their sins on a goat which was then driven into the
wilderness with outbursts of fiendish hate. This prac-
tice of scapegoating is outmoded in modern life, but in
its place is the transference of guilt and hostility to
groups of people who are different. Every group in
American culture has been at one time or another the
victim of scapegoating.
During the colonial period in every one of the orig-
inal thirteen colonies some group was persecuted for its
religious beliefs. In contemporary culture groups of
people constituting a minority of a community are
often made modern "scapegoats," recipients of subtle
as well as blatent discriminations. This is true of Prot-
estants as well as of Catholics and Jews.
Prejudices which are most productive of hostile ac-
tion, i.e., discrimination, arise out of ignorance and
hostility. If there is knowledge rather than ignorance,
we have judgment instead of prejudice; and if we
have friendliness rather than hostility, the prejudice is
of the harmless variety.
Group prejudices are expressed in terms of "false
imagines," pictures in the head. Thus we hear from
the prejudiced the stereotypes: "Negroes are lazy,
"Catholics are bigoted," "Jews are aggressive," "Prot-
estants are godless." Although these generalisations are
false, it is difficult for an individual to overcome ten-
dencies toward discrimination as long as these 'false
imagines" remain. They can be destroyed only by an
educational process which involves vicarious and real
pleasurable experiences with members of groups other
than one's own.
The social disease of prejudice is sinister. It issues in
inequalities, exclusions, denials, and rejections: inequali-
ties which keep justice from groups of people; exclu-
sions which shut up whole groups of human beings so
that they cannot share in the common life of America;
denials which threaten and thwart personality develop-
ment in hundreds of thousands of American children
as well as adults; rejections which interfere with their
changes in life, invade their integrity, and poison the
springs of faith and hope. This is the social disease
which every year affects more people than infantile
paralysis, cancer, and tuberculosis, all combined.
111. PRINCIPLES OF GOOD INTERGROUP RELATIONS
„ HE long-range goal of intergroup education is the
promotion of amity and understanding among the
diverse elements of our national life. This is the only
basis upon which we can preserve and extend the
democratic way of life. Intergroup relations are not
vague abstractions. They constitute the very staff of
life. Human life revolves around' human relations,
good or bad.
But Americans, generally, have been reluctant to
put into practical use the knowledge which the scien-
tists have made available in the field of group rela-
tions. As the Swedish social scientist, Gunnar Myrdal,
pointed out, there is no subject on which Americans
feel more strongly and know less than they do on
minority problems. Data on intergroup relations have
been gathered by anthropologists, psychologists, his-
torians, economists, semanticists, and sociologists. We
cannot attempt here even a brief summary of these
data. But we shall attempt a statement of the princi-
pies which science has validated for the furtherance
of intergroup relationships in our civilisation.
There are three main sources for these principles
which are the "big ideas 1 ' — the dominant elements in
American culture. They are: (1) the Judeo-Christian
tradition, (2) the democratic way of life, (3) science,
both as a method and as a body of findings.
The central thread in Western culture is the religi-
ous teaching of Judaism and Christianity which affirms
the supreme worth of human personality. Catholics,
Protestants, and Jews differ on some points of theology,
but they agree on others, among them the Brotherhood
of Man under the Fatherhood of God. This idea en-
lists the allegiance of a majority of our people; perhaps
a majority even of those who have no formal identity
with organised religion.
LIBERTY THE AMERICAN LANGUAGE
A second source is the democratic commitment of
the American people. This is the major over-arching
tenet of the "American Creed." There is no statement
so frequently nor so fervently quoted as Thomas Jef-
ferson's "All men are created equal" even though some
may add unconsciously "but some are created more
equal than others." This "dream" of a richer and fuller
life for all haunts Americans. It is embedded in the
roots as well as the body and branches of our tree of
Hfe. This is so true that even the demagogues clothe
their evil prejudices and their nefarious intentions in
the language of liberty and freedom. The democratic
creed includes respect for individual personality. Even
though treatment of minority groups may be despic-
able, Americans have admiration for many people who
belong to them and are willing to accept the individual
"genius" though he be a member of a minority group.
But it is the gap which exists between what we pro-
fess and cherish in the democratic creed and that which
we practice, that is goading so many into concern for
the intergroup tensions which exist in our culture.
Another source of sound principles of intergroup
education is science. More and more Americans are
turning to scientific inquiry and its results for the fac-
tual foundation upon which to base belief and action.
This is especially true of the large masses of middle
class people. With a faith that sometimes borders on
the religious we turn to science for answers to our
problems, especially our technical problems. Now we
are learning that science has made available data which
testifies that riots arise out of "undeclared civil wars,"
and that our "stereotypes" reflect ignorance. Historians
tell us that the civilisation which we like to call Amer-
ican is a product of many influences. Psychologists
point out the fallacies upon which prejudices are based.
Anthropologists demonstrate that group isolationism is
a bad habit with fascist implications.
These three dominant elements of our culture — (1)
religion, (-2) democracy, and (3) science — are the well
springs out of which the following principles of inter
group education have emerged.
(1) Every Individual is Entitled to the Rights and
Dignities which All of Us Desire for Ourselves, We
do not grant these rights to others. They have them
by virtue of being human beings and children of God,
and even the simplest recognition of this principle dic-
tates that the common decencies of life should be
freely acknowledged as the rights of every person re'
gardless of color, creed or national origin. There is no
way of reconciling the use of such terms as "Jap,"
"Goyim," "Jig, 1 ^ "Dago," "Wop," "Yellow Belly,"
"Christ Killer," "Spic" or "Guinea," to mention but a
few, with the spirit of "We the people." Even more
difficult to reconcile are the discrimination practices
reflected by signs reading "Christians only" or "Se-
lected clientele" with the religious teaching that one
must "love thy neighbor as thyself."
(2) The Right to be Free Implies the Right to be
Different. The founding of the American Republic was
an act of revolution against the tyranny of empire
which limited the thoughts and acts of people who
desired free development. This "revolution" in human
affairs was centered on political freedom. Only gradu-
ally did Americans begin to realise that those groups
which are small and different have the same rights as
those that are large and powerful; that democracy is
both a form of government and a philosophy for group
living. Charles Evans Hughes said recently that when
we lose the right to be different, we lose the right to
(3) An Understanding of the Aims, Customs, and
Values of Groups Different from Our Own Creates
Appreciation. Since the development of attitudes of
respect for all human beings is the objective of inter
group education, we must begin by learning and under-
standing the cultural customs and traditions of those
who differ from ourselves. Understanding follows
knowledge. "Identification" through actual and vicari-
ous experiences leads to the replacement of fear by a
sense of confidence and security. The tendency to
blame is replaced by a desire to comprehend. It is a
sound principle of all relations between groups of peo-
ple that "understanding" is the foundation stone of
amity and cooperation. Understanding comes best from
association of members of different cultural groups in
doing things together.
(4) All Groups Share Certain Common ^ Aims.
Those who originally conceived of America as "a melt-
ing pot" have long since learned that it is both un-
realistic and undesirable to try to make every group
conform to a particular pattern of culture. Such an
idea of uniformity implies "cultural monism." The
only method of attaining it is Fascism. It is desirable
for all groups to have high standards, but we do not
want any group to abandon its cultural customs unless
they are incompatible with American ideals of democ-
racy. This point of view, however, does not mean that
there are no common aims or values which all groups
share. Democracy is itself an ideal that constitutes a
major commitment of Americans. There are also social
and religious values which all groups share, such as
good health and education, which in turn depend upon
a sound economic order. It is as much to the advantage
of Protestants and Catholics for America to have good
housing as it is to Jews or to any other group.
(5) Each Individual Should be Judged on the Basis
of His Own Merits. One of the major mistakes of our
culture is that we have developed the habit of "cate-
goring" people. This cultural habit of generalising
about religious, racial, and national groups is not only
unscientific; it is contrary to the basic principles of
both Judaism and Christianity which place great stress
upon the worth of every individual. Furthermore, such
"stereotyped" thinking about groups of people — "Jews
are sensitive," "Catholics are narrow-minded," "Prot-
estants are religiously lax" — are also violations of the
democratic way of life. It is good sense, good religion,
and good democracy for each individual to be judged
on his own merits without reference to his race, creed
(6) Civilization is a Product of All Groups. One of
the fundamental reasons for the progress of so-called
American culture is that we are great borrowers of
culture. Our progress rests upon things we have been
willing to take from other peoples. Even the early in-
ventions such as the wheel, the level, and the alphabet,
were borrowed by our European ancestors from the
so-called backward people of Asia and Africa. The
colonists brought with them all the inventions known
in Europe. In this country they borrowed many things
from the American Indians — many more than one usu-
ally thinks. For what would happen to the American
table if we removed turkey, cranberry sauce, potatoes,
and corn? Yet all of these things, and more, we bor-
rowed from the Indians. Immigrants from colonial
times to the present have also brought their cultural
gifts. Thus "American Civilisation" has been made
possible through the contributions of individuals from
all creeds and clans and the cooperative efforts of ail. /
We are "imitators" and we happen to live at "the/
crossroads of the world" with an abundant supply of
natural resources. Thus our civilisation has been the
product of all peoples — Caucasoid, Mongoloid, and
Negroid, whether they be Jew, Catholic or Protestant.
(7) Democracy Cannot Work for Some Unless it
Works for All. It has often been said that democracy
is like a chain in that it is as strong or as weak as the
links which go to make it up. All cultural groups in
America have a spiritual relationship which makes jus-
tice a right and not a privilege. "One nation indivisible
with liberty and justice for all" means just what it
says, "for all." For liberty is indivisible. Until every
group in America (and this should be applied to the
whole world), has the rights and dignities of the demo-
cratic way of life, democracy is neither complete nor
safe. We are all immigrants and descendants of im-
migrants, a nation of many religions and races, a nation
which rejects caste distinctions as incompatible with
our democratic way of life. "E Pluribus Unum" is
both our motto and our glory — out of many nations,
one nation. A democracy must stick together or it will
fall apart. Abraham Lincoln's inclusive statement that
this country could not continue to "exist half slave and
half free" needs now to be extended to cover the whole
(8) Fundamentally All People Struggle for, Need
and Want the Same Things. These basic desires are
charted in the "Bill of Rights" prepared by the National
Resource Planning Board;
1. The right to work, usefully and creatively,
through the productive years.
2. The right to fair pay, adequate for the neces-
sities and amenities of life ... in exchange for
3. The right to adequate food, clothing, shelter,
and medical care.
4. The right to security, with freedom from fear
of old age, want, dependency, sickness, and
5. The right to live in a system of free enterprise.
6. The right to come and go, to speak or be silent,
free from the spyings of secret political police.
7. The right to equality before the law, with
equal access to justice in fact.
8. The right to education for work, for citizen-
ship, for personal growth and happiness.
9. The right to rest, to recreation and adventure,
to the enjoyment of life and an advancing
ULTURAL GROUP& >N AMERICA
**!.-*«..» ft ft» ft »ft» <
IV. DEVELOPING THE STRATEGY
I.N the field of intergroup relations, as in other areas
of social engineering, there is no one method of ap-
proach for the solution of intergroup problems, ine
techniques and strategy to be used in any particular
situation are dependent upon factors among which are
the available leadership, the level of intergroup co-
operation, and the specific problems involved. Inter-
group education may, however, take place every day
of the year in every institution of the community. Ex-
cept in special training situations for leadership, it
should not be a new course added to the curriculum of
either the school or the church school. It is rather an
emphasis upon and the practice of certain principles
enumerated in the previous chapter.
There are, however, some techniques which have
proved effective in the experience of individuals, insti-
tutions and organisations at work in the field. The fol'
lowing brief of tested techniques should not be taken
as a blueprint of action, but it will be suggestive of
procedures which may be worked out in the light of
particular situations. A note of warning should be
stated in the form of a text: "Be ye wise as serpents
and harmless as doves."
(1) Become Informed about the Problems in this
There are hundreds of books and pamphlets avail-
able on the subject of intergroup relations. A selected
bibliography will be found at the end of this text along
with a listing of the national organizations which are
working on this problem. Reading the non-technical
literature in the field will help orient the beginner. One
should begin by getting a good view of the whole field
before attempting to initiate efforts for the ameliora-
tion of special situations. One will do well to remember
that any single aspect of the field should be considered
within the framework of the whole range of human
relations in a democracy. Separate consideration of any
one issue, without reference to its total setting, may
tend to exaggerate its importance and obscure the cen-
tral principal of respect for human personality*. This
does not preclude consideration of a specific problem
such as Jewish-Christian relations, but it does mean
that this aspect of the whole problem of intergroup
relations should not be considered as either the Chris-
* P 3 Unity Through Undrestanding, Board of Education of the
City of New York, 1945-46.
tian problem or the Jewish problem, but as a problem
for every American.
Another important factor in orienting oneself is as-
sociation with others who are aware and concerned
with intergroup tensions. This may be your next-door
neighbor, your clergyman, the principal of the neigh-
borhood school or any one of scores of business or
professional folk of your community. Seek out others.
This very act may be an initial step in bettering rela-
Still another step in becoming acquainted in the field
may be taken by getting in touch with organizations
which specialize in the field. You will find many of the
national organizations listed in Chapter VII. If there is a
local unit of the National Conference of Christians and
Jews in your city, get in touch with its office. Make a
call on its director and make known your interest. Re-
quests for literature may be directed either to the local
or national office of such organizations. And, if at all
possible, identify yourself as a participating member of
this and other movements for civic unity.
(2) Set a Good Example.
Every American should turn the spotlight upon his
own attitude and actions to examine his own relation
to those who differ from him religiously, nationally, or
culturally. Have we imputed ulterior motives to them
while assuming a ''holier than thou" attitude? Are we
guilty of the use of belittling terms which are insulting
to those who happen to belong to a religion different
from our own? Are we careless in the use of jokes that
perpetuate false labels about groups? What's your real
score? (See test in Appendix.)
One may well be reminded of the great English
philosopher who noted that the person who states that
he has no prejudice thereby reveals one of the greatest
of prejudices. Furthermore, verbalisation alone is not
a substitute for action. Thinking is in itself a form of
action but intelligent discussion is a necessary prelude
to decisive action, not a substitute for it.
(3) Know Your Neighbors.
A few months ago a friend of mine was going by
train across several states. At a small station his train
was delayed for a few minutes and he strolled over to
the depot where a villager was resting in the shade.
Said my friend, "What community is this?" There was
no answer from the villager, only a blank stare. "I say,
what community is this?" my friend repeated. "Well,"
said the man, "if you will quit using them big words
and talk American, 111 answer you." My friend was
quite pulled for a moment, then said, "Oh, you mean
the word 'community? 1 That is a simple word. It means
a place where people are friendly and have common
interests." Whereupon the villager answered, "Well,
Mister, this ain't a community. It is just a place."
Too many of our American towns and neighbor-
hoods are "places" rather than communities. What
about the one in which you live? Who are the people
in your community? What are their religious and na-
tionality backgrounds? Do you understand their religi-
ous customs and traditions? Are there groups in your
community that are discriminated against by other
people? How many people of a religion different from
your own have you had in your home? A good test of
whether you "know your neighbor" is whether you
have friends in all the groups different from your own.
(4) Deal First with Local Manageable Problems.
We should take a lesson from Hitler's strategy and
concentrate our efforts on the weakest link in the chain
of discrimination which makes prisoners of some min-
ority groups in America. Select a problem that you
have a good chance to solve. It may be the prejudiced
attitude of a member of your own group or an "un-
written rule" of your civic club which bars members
of certain religious groups. Don't try to change human
nature on a world scale. The job is too big for you and
your friends. Besides there are local problems which
need your assistance. Some religious or racial groups
are constantly slighted when a "representative" group
of religious leaders is chosen to cooperate on a civic
project. Some quiet and tactful work on your part
may solve the problem.
If there are un-American groups, such as the Klan,
attempting to foment hate and to organise in your
community, mobilise the real leadership of the com-
munity from school,, church, civic organisations^ the
mayor's office, and make the efforts of these "hate
hucksters" useless. Don't call a mass protest meeting.
Get all the leaders of the community to work through
their own organisations. A community can actually be
immunised against "hate-mongers" and "hate peddlers"
who seek to divide and conquer, if leadership is mo-
(5) Work with Others.
Although an individual can be an effective influence
in developing better intergroup relations, this problem
is too big in each community for one person. Let it not
be said that "the children of Beelsebub are wiser in
their generation than the children of light." Join forces
with others in your community or neighborhood who
are interested. You will find such institutions as public
libraries, social studies departments of high schools,
churches, and many civic organisations ready and wiU'
ing to cooperate. Make use of the existing organisations
and institutions before attempting to organise new
ones. If a new organisation is necessary, affiliate with
a national organisation which works through existing
channels rather than attempt to create new social ma'
Small study and discussion groups can be effective
without the necessity of spending time and effort on
organisational procedures. Protestants, Catholics, and
Jews will be happy to come to your home for an eve-
ning of free exchange of ideas on subjects of common
concern. And the chances are good that others will
invite you into their homes in return. This is a good
social substitute for the "cracker barrel" discussion
which played so significant a role among our fore-
fathers who built this democracy. "Agreeing to dis-
agree agreeably 1 ' is not difficult in the sociability of a
home over a cup of tea or coffee. It's a good American
(6) Drive Home the Facts.
Although one may wish to choose the exact moment
at which to speak out against prejudice and bigotry,
the importance of pounding home the facts can hardly
be over-emphasised. Explode the myths which are the
stock and trade of the prejudiced. Smash the stereo-
types with scientific facts from authoritative sources.
And never let slander be put forth as truth. You will
want to choose your method of presentation, but drive
home the facts. Discover and document the cost of
prejudice in energy, money and moral integrity, espe-
cially to the holder of prejudice. This is the appeal to
self-interest and it is often the only language that your
opponents understand. Prejudice is bad for a commu-
nity — bad for business, for churches, for schools, for
To those who are well-intentioned, but misled by
rumors and rationalisations, use the "shock treatment."
Point out the inconsistency of their attitudes with their
professed religion. Most Americans who are prejudiced
are nonetheless half -conscious of our tradition of fair
play and of the requirements of democratic decency. It
is latent bigotry in people who are not consciously
fascists that offers fertile soil to the intolerant peddler
of hate. Don't let him gain ground with such Ameri-
cans. Appeal to their sense of fair play and democratic
decency to line up on the side of truth and justice.*
You have much of the press, most of the churches,
many opinion leaders including teachers, politicians
and writers on your side. Join forces with them to
drive home the facts. Our democracy was founded on
faith in the common decency of the common man if
he has opportunity to know the facts. Our religious-
democratic-scientific ethos will win — with your help,
to devise the social machinery necessary- to mobilise
the forces of American brotherhood.
A great task in intergroup education confronts the
teachers, ministers, parents, and community leaders of
America. But the development of unity, cooperation,
and understanding between the religious and cultural
* Gordon W. Allport, "The Bigot In Our Midst," The Common-
weal, October 6, 1944.
groups of our country is a high privilege worthy of
our best efforts.- We hold at this penultimate moment
in history the opportunity to assist in the elimination
of the contradictions in our culture and the develop'
ment of young Americans who can live and build har-
moniously in this nation — a nation which was settled
and built by people of all creeds, races, and nationali-
V. REARING CHILDREN OF GOODWILL
JT may well be that the training that American
children of today receive in intergroup relations will
determine the success or failure of current efforts to
unite the world for the preservation of peace. The up'
swing of world opinion in the direction of a united
world does to a large extent depend upon the attitude
of the United States. And the ability of global-thinking
Americans to marshal resources for permanent support
of and participation in the United Nations movement
will depend on the attitudes of our children toward
v. the various cultural groups in our own country.
Children who develop prejudices toward those who
differ from themselves may be counted on to become
adults who will hold even more intense hatreds for
peoples of other countries. Those who learn to dis-
criminate against Orientals during elementary and high
school experiences will surely become adults who will
hold slight regard for the interests of the millions of
Mongoloid peoples of the world. Those who develop
hatreds for American citizens who happen to be col'
ored cannot be expected to cooperate as adults with
the peoples of Africa and India.
If this be true, it is imperative that home, church,
school, and community in America give more attention
to the intercultural education of youth.
IN THE HOME
One of the important factors in the development of
children of goodwill is the parent-child relationship. If
the parent is unable to see the problems of the child
through his eyes and consequently forces him continu'
ally into attitudes of anger and emotional hostility, he
will become the type that discriminates, hates, and at'
tacks. The children of insecurity become the adults of
The parent who knows himself, who is able in
daily action and attitude to approximate the ideals
which he cherishes, will be able to develop good inter
group attitudes in his children. Homes in which
friends of many racial and religious groups find a
welcome constitute good training centers for children
who will learn to judge individuals on the basis of
their personal worth without reference to creed or
color. On the other hand, the home in which false,
stereotyped ideas of certain groups are common will
produce children of ill will.
Some practical aids every home should have include
attractively illustrated literature of whatever religion
the family holds; the book One God and the Ways
We Worship Him by Florence Fitch; When Children
Ask by Marguerite Harmon Bro; and This Is the
World by Josephine Pease.
But even more important than these material aids is
the parent's ability to discuss differences of various
American people in a fair and unbiased way. Suppose
Jimmie comes home and says, "Mother, Tommie says
that Sammie is a Jew. What is a Jew, Mommie?" If
the mother hesitates and then says, "Well, Jews are
different," she has planted an emotional attitude which
places Sammie outside Jimmie's group. If she sympa-
thetically explains that Sammie's people hold to the
Jewish faith and that there are many things in its
traditions which are held in common with Christianity
as well as some things that are different, she has laid
the foundation stone of good intercultural training.
IN THE CHURCH
The ideals of true tolerance and brotherhood are
central in every religious group of any consequence in
America. Church school and synagogue teachers, there-
fore, hold not only an opportunity for the development
of good intergroup attitudes in children, but a mandate
to do so. Children sense the real attitudes of their
teachers and no amount of false piety can trick them.
The first requirement of the religious teacher is that
her faith be held sincerely and honestly. For attitudes
of goodwill are often "caught" rather than "taught."
With the aid of pictures, toys, and books suitable
for the age of children involved, the teacher of religion
may condition her charges for healthy attitudes to-
ward those who differ in race, creed, or national origin.
This conditioning can be made especially effective if
the group is made up of children from various back'
grounds. If such is not the case, the teacher should
see that opportunity is created for intergroup experi-
ences. As children develop religious maturity, they
will grow in a deepening appreciation of their own
faith as well as understanding of others. This can be
accomplished without in any sense weakening or
"watering down 11 the child's own faith.
With the progress of the child from the nursery and
pre-school departments of the church school into the
older age-groups, a core of religious ideas may be de-
veloped, and his religion will become a way of life.
This is the natural result if the earlier experiences in
the religious school have been happy and positive. This
involves equipment and materials which are of high
quality, but not necessarily expensive. Attitudes of
brotherly love should be as central in the child's re-
ligion as those of the love of God.
IN THE SCHOOL
f By the time the child has entered the first grade he
has to some extent become aware of differences. His
attitude toward these differences having been deter-
mined primarily by the home environment and sup-
plemented by the church school, the child now finds
himself in a more complicated world. It is important
for the child not only to recognise that differences exist
but to realise that there are common values which
over-arch them. This is the central thesis of democracy
and if the child fails to understand and cherish human
values, he will find constant frustration in "bumping"
into the rights of others.
Good intercultural practices can be developed in the
total life of the school. There are areas of the curricu-
lum where courses on the peoples of our world, a cul-
tural history of America, or any one of many other
possible courses of content might and have been of-
fered. But intercultural education should be an integral
phase of the total educational process. )
Most teachers need training in this area. It is to be
hoped that the experiments which are being sponsored
by the National Conference of Christians and Jews
through the American Council on Education will be
expanded and will lead the forces of education to do
a better job in this phase of education for democratic
living. The institutes and workshops which are being
held represent other projects which will lead to better
leadership and practice among teachers.
The opportunities which exist for developing chil-
dren with good intergroup attitudes exist in every
school situation. Since one of the best ways of develop-
ing these attitudes is through participation in activities
without reference to differences, the classroom and
school community experiences should be resources.
Among others the home room organised on a demo-
cratic basis, intramural games, and activities of intel-
lectual competition may become important assets in
the development of children who will be able to live
democratically. Assembly programs, plays, pageants,
concerts, all have their place in developing children
One midwestern school last year had a priest, minister
and rabbi for the same assembly program, but not one
of the speakers spoke about his particular faith. The
minister discussed the home life of the Japanese peo-
ple. The rabbi told of his interest in poetry and quoted
at length some of his favorite poems. And the priest
spoke of his interest in various forms of art.
Other resources for the development of real toler-
ance and understanding among children of various
backgrounds include the school library, movies, social
museums, and recordings. One school in the Middle
West sponsored a "cultural fair" which placed on dis-
play the "manyness" of America and dramatized the
common bonds which bind people together in a democ-
racy. The whole town turned out to get an inter-
All these projects and many others have been used
successfully in American schools. With the coming of
better texts, written without bias against race, creed or
national origin, and with better in-service training of
teachers, we may expect an even greater contribution
through the schools to the preservation and extension
IN THE COMMUNITY
In a very real sense the family is a small community
within itself. Within the experiences of the family
group a child should be introduced to objects and peo-
ple of the wider community. The milkman, the delivery
boy, the grocery clerk, all offer opportunity for par-
ents to guide the growth of their children into a
mature and democratic point of view.
Children who begin participation in the wider com-
munity through a nursery school experience should
find themselves in a group in which there are other
children of various religious and cultural groups. If this
is not true, the parents should provide opportunity for
their children to associate on an equal basis with those
of different backgrounds.
Older children may share the spirit of their com-
munity through participation in Boy Scouts, Girl
Scouts, Camp Fire Girls, and playground groups, as
well as through school and church groups. The holi-
days offer excellent opportunity for parents to organ-
ise for community songs, festivals or dances. For na-
tionally observed occasions, like "I Am An American
Day" and "Brotherhood Week," materials are available
from sponsoring agencies.
Parents who participate in community efforts for a
better America are receiving the best possible training
for rearing children of goodwill. They can work for
legal protection of minority people against discrimina-
tion in employment and for a higher level of dignity
and respect for human personality. Voluntary work
with community agencies which lift the social and
economic level of family living is a direct contribution
to the rearing of democratic children. People of dif-
ferent faiths who live side by side for years without
the practice of neighborliness are missing an oppor-
tunity for warm friendliness and mutual respect which
form the touchstone of the American way of life.
And one should not forget that our children will
increasingly need to develop into citizens of the world.
With the growing interdependence of the peoples of
the world there must be a realisation of the common
humanity of all peoples. Perhaps emphasis should be
laid on the likeness of people, but we need not blind
our children to the differences which enrich rather
than weaken world civilisation. Children respond fav-
orably to material illustrating the different ways of
living of the various peoples of the world. Textbooks,
pictures, stories, and objects of art are excellent aids in
intercultural education, but the best learning situation
is one in which children experience pleasurable occa-
sions among good representatives of other groups. Chil-
dren should be made to feel that toleration is not
enough. Life will be richer and fuller if the people of
all races, religions, and nationalities can work together
sympathetically and cooperatively for the common
good of all. As an old Chinese proverb says:
If there is righteousness in the heart,
There will be beauty in the character.
If there is beauty in the character,
There will be harmony in the home.
If there is harmony in the home,
There will be order in the nation.
If there is order in the nation,
There will be peace in the world.
VI. A DEMOCRACY OF CULTURES
MERICAN culture is plagued by the social dis-
ease of prejudice which is more expensive, affects far
more people, and is more threatening both to the
unity of the nation and the well-being of communities
than any physical malady. This social disease, with all
of its resulting frustrations, maladjustments, fears, sus-
picions, and discriminations arising between groups,
constitutes one of America's major social problems.
The real problem is not that of group differences but
our reaction to those differences. It is not a matter of
conflict between groups. In all dynamic societies men
and groups are competing, struggling, seeking to get
ahead. The real danger lies in the undemocratic attitude
we hold and the unequal treatment we accord to those
who are different.
AN AMERICAN PROBLEM
This is a peculiarly American problem. We have
here one of the most complex cultural scenes in the
world. Although settled from the first by individuals
and groups of many races, creeds, and nationalities,
prejudice has been increasing, not decreasing. We have
now reached the stage in our development where we
must create the social machinery for lifting our cul'
ture to a new level of group relationships. Ours is a
multi'group society and we have not created the social
machinery for the ordering of life in a nation with a
plural number of cultures. From the beginning of our
history we have been primarily concerned with the
exploitation of a land of unlimited possibilities. We
have been accumulating wealth and supplying the
world with raw materials. We have learned to work,
to build enterprises, to invent machines, to develop
natural and physical science in the application to in'
dustrial development. But we have been little con"
cerned about civic betterment, group relations, or the
fundamental question of clashes between cultural
groups. We have struggled with nature, not with hu-
Consequently, our patterns of social machinery are
still those of the horse and buggy age. We have had
the view that if one disliked his neighbor, he could
move on further west, or "make it so hot" for the
neighbor that he would move on. The problems of
intergroup relations were things that we did not under'
stand, did not have to cope with because we could
move away and leave them. This is what we did. But
we can't do it any longer. For the past half century
we have been living next door to the problem, hoping
that it would solve itself. It has grown steadily worse
until now it threatens our whole way of life.
It is not a matter of political ideology or political
organisation. If we lived up. to our constitution and
enforced the laws we have, most aspects of the prob'
lem Would not exist. The difficulty is that codes and
constitutions do not control men's thoughts, attitudes,
and social actions. Therefore, we have developed a vast
"split" between what our ideals, our law and political
ideology set forth and what we think and practice in
social relations. It is not a matter of one particular
group. The trouble lies between all groups of our na'
tion. This calls for a better ordering of group relations.
And since this entails a change in emotional attitudes,
it is primarily an educational task.
It should be noted that the greatest group of foreign'
born poured into the country at the time when our
"cultural lag" was most accentuated. At the very time
when we had come to the "end of the frontier" and
were being forced to solve our social problems rather
than run away from them, the largest groups of immi'
grants were struggling to make adjustment to our cul'
tural life. There was a theory about what should take
place. The general concept was that new groups of
people coming into America should rapidly drop their
past traditions and become completely changed into
the dominant American pattern of life. There was no
expectation that our culture might be changed, might
be benefitted by new streams that were added. It was
the "melting-pot' 11 theory which was made popular by
a drama by Zangwill, who had one of his characters
"Now understand that America is God's Crucible,
the great Melting Pot where all the races of Europe
are melting and reforming! . . . the great Alchemist
melts and fuses them with his purging flame! Here
shall they all unite to build the Republic of Man and
the Kingdom of God."
This theory was the motivating ideology behind the
Americanization movement which began at about the
opening of the twentieth century and was widely pub"
licked and accepted. Both education and religion large'
ly accepted and promoted this movement.
It did not work. Groups of people who came here to
make their homes brought with them their religion,
customs, traditions, and modes of behaviour. They con-
tinued to live by them because they preferred them or
because they were matters of conscience, and because
they were reluctant to take on the new ways of Amer-
ican culture which was itself made up of many groups.
They held aloof from American social life, continuing
their cultural practices in isolation. Americans of the
majority did not want them and in turn the minorities
did not desire to be changed. The melting pot theory
failed to work. It led to disintegration of some groups;
with others it motivated a tightening of group tradi-
tions as a defensive technique. Acculturation did not
take place because groups failed to melt. The breaking
of inherited traditions often led to crime and pauper-
ism; reaction against assimilation led to extreme forms
A new theory has been emerging which is more
promising. It takes account of the vital needs of min-
ority groups and, more important, seeks to provide for
the preservation of the vital cultural traditions of these
groups whose "human natures" were the products of
centuries of civilization and culture different from our
own. Still more important, it recognizes the most
fundamental elements of the American dream: that
each group has distinctive values to add to our way of
life and that all groups have a "stake" in democracy.
This theory, commonly known as "cultural democracy"
assumes that no one culture contains all favorable ele-
ments, and that America will be richer and stronger in
its cultural make-up if the best that each group has
brought is conserved as a part of the total cultural life
of the nation. If this theory is correct, and science is
daily bringing forth data which indicate that it is,
then the problem of group adjustment becomes both
that of preserving cultural traits as long as they are
found useful and do not conflict with the geperal wel-
fare; and of creating pride in their customs, mores, and
folkways on the part of minority groups together with
loyalty to and action in accordance with the over-all
values of American life. Thus, the educational process
is one of the preservation of inherited values com-
patible with the democratic way of life and the con-
tinuous building of all cultures into original patterns
of the best American traditions.
The implications of this theory are many. The first
is that of eliminating prejudice. This calls for each
group to recognise the values inherent in the culture
of the others. The question naturally arises as to
whether these different streams of culture will be per-
manently preserved in our civilization? Cultural democ-
racy does not imply that special cultures will remain
unchanged for all time. Acculturation will, it is hoped,
lead to common action in areas of common concern.
But uniformity is not desired. As has been previously
mentioned "cultural monism" can be achieved only by
fascism which carries the seeds of its own destruction.
The creation of new social machinery should make
possible a new and significant development in Ameri-
can life. Intergroup education is the method. The form
of the social machinery is not clear at this time. But it
seems clear that we stand on the threshold of a new
movement of brotherhood — an "American Brother-
hood" — in which a growing number of Americans will
hold membership on the basis of individual merit and
worth and the dedication to and practice of cultural
democracy. This will call for a new charter, a charter
of both individual relations and of group relations. Out
of this movement for the creation of the American
Brotherhood will emerge the sense of belonging to the
j . 7 5 »- ai«*r
VII. WHERE YOU CAN GET HELP
HERE are several hundred organisations in Amer-
ica actively engaged in some phase of intergroup educa-
tion and activity. There are hundreds more which
make some contribution to the field but whose main
purpose lies in some other area. There are approxi-
mately 120 organisations which are national in scope,
35 are state, and there are 26 national organisations
which may be called social action groups. These groups
are designed to protect civil liberties, to influence legis-
lation, or to achieve other social objectives. Fifteen
groups are identified with labor. Thirty organisations
are connected with religious groups. About a half
dosen are youth organisations. Five are philanthropic
enterprises. About twenty organisations are concerned
with refugees, immigrants and particular cultural or
nationality groups. At least a dozen agencies of the
government are active in this field. In addition, three
states — New York, New Jersey, Massachusetts— have
legal machinery for the protection of citizens against
discrimination, prosecution of offenders, and the initia-
tion of educational efforts to eliminate undemocratic
discrimination because of race, creed or color.
The following annotated list of the dozen most
prominent organizations in the field of intergroup edu'
cation should be helpful to those desiring information,
assistance, and cooperation in furthering cultural de-
(1) American Council on Race Relations
32 West Randolph Street, Chicago 1, Illinois
Provides community consultation, planning, and as'
sistance. Serves as a clearing house on race relations
materials, issues original materials, and initiates activity
designed to achieve "full participation of all citizens in
all aspects of American life: equal rights and equal
(2) American Jewish Committee
386 Fourth Avenue, New York 16, N. Y.
The Committee works to combat anti-Semitism and
promote pro-democratic ideas and interfaith relation'
ships. This is done through printed matter, through
activities in support of progressive legislation designed
to counteract manifestations of anti-minority and anti-
liberal feelings, through scientific research probing the
causes and effects of anti-Semitism, and through sup-
port of intercultural and intergroup educational pro-
(3) American Jewish Congress
1834 Broadway, New York, N. Y.
The American Jewish Congress is a confederation
of affiliated national and local organizations and indi-
vidual members, organized into local chapters. Its Com-
mission on Community Interrelations undertakes a pro-
gram to determine the real causes of intergroup tension
and conflict and to do something about overcoming
such hostilities. A staff of specialists in "action re-
search" makes sampling studies involving specific cases
of group conflict and, in cooperation with all possible
agencies and individuals in the local community, seeks
to remove the hostilities.
(4) Anti-Defamation League of B'nai B'rith
100 North LaSalie Street, Chicago, Illinois
The League was formed to eliminate defamation of
the Jews and to counteract un-American and anti-
Semitic propaganda through direct effort and a broad
educational program. It supplies public speakers, and
makes use of all media of public information to expose
and counteract attempts to corrupt the public mind. It
also supplies pamphlets, posters, leaflets. Its research
department supplies accurate data and statistics. It
maintains offices in the larger cities.
(5) Bureau for Intercultural Education
119 West 57th Street, New York 19, N. Y.
The Bureau works principally with school systems
in the development of long-term intercultural programs.
It gives consultive service to organizations and institu-
tions, publishes curriculum materials as well as pamph-
lets and articles, sponsors intercultural workshops in
cooperation with several universities, and furnishes
speakers for conventions, educational gatherings, and
(6) Catholic Interracial Council
20 Vesey Street, New York, N. Y.
The Catholic Interracial Council has branches in
Detroit, Boston, Kansas City, and Los Angeles. It is
not an official agency of the Roman Catholic Church.
The Council publishes materials, sponsors lecture
courses, issues monthly The Interracial Review, and
organises collegiate units which work for interracial
justice. The purpose of the Council is "to promote in
every practicable way, relations between the races based
on Christian principles of interracial justice and charity
which uphold the God-given dignity and destiny of
(7) Committee of Catholics for Human Rights
1775 Broadway, New York, N. Y.
Their program is: (1) Issuance of "Catholic Voices
Against Race Hatred" to reach the Catholic Church,
school and lay organisations in the United States. This
consists of declarations by leading Catholics against
anti-Semitism and bigotry; (2) Regular issuance of
pamphlets and newsletters containing genuine Catholic
teaching against all forms of racial and religious bigotry.
(8) Council Against Intolerance in America
17 East 42nd Street, New York 17, N. Y.
Its purpose is to combat prejudice and to develop
democratic relations among all groups in America. It
publishes posters, maps, holds conferences, and pub-
lishes a monthly educational guide, American Unity.
(9) Department of Race Relations of the Federal
Council of the Churches of Christ in America
297 Fourth Avenue, New York 10, N. Y.
The Department of Race Relations is one of eight
departments and seven commissions of the Federal
Council, a federated national body representing twenty-
five major Protestant groups. The purpose of the de-
partment is to enlist, instruct, and inspire church lead-
ers to practice the principles of brotherhood implicit in
Christianity. It promotes the observance of Race Rela-
tions Sunday, holds interracial clinics, furnishes con-
sultive service, and cooperates with religious, social and
civic agencies in seeking fair legislation and administra-
tion of laws and equitable civic rights for all groups.
"Interracial News Service" is a bi-monthly publication
which contains information on interracial questions.
(10) National Conference of Christians and Jews
381 Fourth Avenue, New York 16, N. Y.
The oldest and largest intergroup educational agency
in America. Its principal objectives are to promote jus-
tice, amity, understanding and cooperation among Prot-
estants, Catholics and Jews, and to lessen and eliminate
intergroup strife. It maintains three national commis-
sions for work with national religious, educational and
civic organisations, and operates Religious News Ser-
vice. The Conference has offices in the principal cities
of America. It furnishes speakers, materials, films, pos-
ters, and publishes "Conference," a quarterly publica-
tion of trends and news of interfaith and intergroup
activity. It also sponsors teachers 1 workshops, insti'
tutes, and maintains through the American Council on
Education a series of local and national projects in
American schools. The Conference sponsors American
Brotherhood Week and Religious Book Week.
(11) National Urban League
1133 Broadway, New York 10, N. Y.
The National Urban League has as its chief purpose
the promotion of the welfare of the Negro population
in urban centers. There are more than fifty local units
which are entirely autonomous. Making use of social
work techniques the League provides a program built
around the needs of housing, employment, health, and
community organisation. Consultative services and spe'
cial materials available for use in the classroom, church,
school or other institutions interested in educational
programs concerning Negro life. The League publishes
"Opportunity," a journal of Negro life.
(12) Southern Regional Council
63 Auburn Avenue, Atlanta 3, Georgia
The Southern Regional Council takes as its objective
"the improvement of economic, civic, and racial con'
ditions in the South." It is bi-racial in its membership
and staff but its activities extend beyond interracial
problems. Seeking to ameliorate the problems of the
South, the Council initiates research, issues pamphlets,
and offers consultative services to public and private
agencies. Other organisations with similar objectives
receive close cooperation from the Council.
AMERICANS ALL: STUDIES IN INTERCUL-
TURAL EDUCATION. By C. O. Arndt (Editor).
Valuable case studies in inter cultural education. Sim'
pie, fully detailed accounts of practices which have
proven their worth. A wide variety of in-school and
community experiences for the educator. Fourteenth
Yearbook, Department of Supervisors and Directors of
Instruction of the National Education Association,
Washington, D. C. 1942. 385 pp. $2.00.
AN AMERICAN DILEMMA, THE NEGRO
PROBLEM AND MODERN DEMOCRACY. By
This exhaustive two-volume study by a Swedish
scientist of the economic, social, political, and educa-
tional problems of the Negroes in America explores
the situation with scientific detachment.
BROTHERS UNDER THE SKIN. By Carey Mo-
Mr. McWilliams writes a penetrating book about
the Negro, the Japanese, the Hawaiian, the Filipino.
He does not sugarcoat his opinion that our treatment
of these minorities is lacking in American ideals.
DEMOCRATIC HUMAN RELATIONS. By Hilda
Taba and William Van Til (Editors).
The Sixteenth Yearbook of The National Council
For the Social Studies. An analytical survey of inter-
group education said by many to be the best book in
the field. National Education Association. 1945.
GET TOGETHER AMERICANS: FRIENDLY AP-
PROACHES TO RACIAL AND CULTURAL
CONFICTS THROUGH THE NEIGHBORHOOD-
HOME FESTIVAL. By Rachel Davis-Debois.
A report of actual experiences in the use of the
Neighborhood-Home Festival. An analysis of problems
involved in understanding the psychology of intergroup
relationships. Source materials on seasonal and patriotic
festivals. Harper 6? Brothers. 1943. 182 pp. $1.75.
GETTING ACQUAINTED WITH JEWISH
NEIGHBORS. By Mildred Moody Eakin.
A practical guide book for church school leaders in
dealing with Christian- Jewish relationships, with espe-
cial emphasis upon the recognition of the place which
Jewish experience has had in the development of Chris-
tianity. The Macmillan Company. 1944.
GLASS HOUSE OF PREJUDICE. By Dorothy W.
A fine treatise on the effects, causes, and cures of
prejudice. Should be read by all young adults and
their parents. William Morrow & Company, Inc.
INTERCULTURAL EDUCATION IN AMERI-
ICAN SCHOOLS. By Stewart G. Cole and William
An introduction to the problem of the responsibility
of the schools for improved relations with members of
cultural groups in America. A major insight is the ad'
vocacy of cultural democracy rather than the melting'
pot theory. Harper & Brothers. 1943. 215 pp. (paper)
$1.00, (cloth) $2.00.
MINORITY PROBLEMS IN THE PUBLIC
SCHOOLS. By Theodore Brameld.
A study of administrative practices in seven school
systems, with especial reference to the way they ap'
proach problems of intercultural relations. Harper 5?
Brothers. 1946. (paper) $1.50.
ONE GOD. By Florence Mary Fitch.
An outstanding book about the three great religions
of democracy which will help children to understand
and respect the different ways people worship God.
Lothrop, Lee & Shepard Co. $2.00.
OUR RACIAL AND NATIONAL MINORITIES.
By Francis J. Brown and Joseph Slabey Roucek (Edi-
This is a compendium of reports, by experts, on the
different foreign groups in the United States. It col-
lates and comments on material not easily found else-
where. An investigation of all American minority
groups which brings a fuller realisation of their con-
tributions and just place in American society. Prentice
PROBING OUR PREJUDICES. By Hortense Pow-
An attempt to help high school students become
aware of their prejudices; to understand the nature,
origin, and effect of prejudices; and to suggest activities
which can help to reduce them. Harper & Brothers.
THE STORY OF THE SPRINGFIELD PLAN. By
Clarence I. Chatto and Alice L. Halligan.
A complete and official account of what one city,
Springfield, Massachusetts, has done to develop demo-
cratic citizenship through the schools and community
agencies. Barnes & Noble, Inc. $2.75.
A B Cs OF SCAPEGOATING. Foreword by Gordon
Psychological examination of the pathology of un-
warranted aggression. Scholarly, abstract presentation
lightened by examples prepared by a Harvard psycho-
logist's seminar. Central YMCA College, Chicago,
1944. 72 pp. 25 cents.
AMERICANS ALL: A SHORT HISTORY OF
A fact-filled pamphlet dealing primarily with Jewish
contributions to American civilization. Anti-Defama-
tion League of B'nai B'rith, Chicago, n.d. 31 pp. 10
A PRIMER ON INTERGROUP EDUCATION. By
Everett R. Clinchy and Sterling W. Brown. 8 pp. 3
Introduction to intercultural education for public,
parochial and church school teachers, but also useful
to others. National Conference of Christians and Jews.
BUILDING BRIDGES BETWEEN GROUPS
THAT DIFFER IN FAITH, RACE, CULTURE.
By John H. Elliott. 48 pp. 25 cents.
Written to help young people in the human engi-
neering problem of bridging the gulfs between men of
different religious, racial, and nationality backgrounds.
National Conference of Christians and Jews.
DO YOU WANT TO BE HAPPY AND FREE. By
Willard Johnson. 16 pp. 1 cent.
Amusing cartoon account of the necessity for every-
one to respect and work with people in all groups.
National Conference of Christians and Jews.
FREEDOM, JUSTICE, RESPONSIBILITY.
The findings of the various commissions of the Inter-
national Conference of Christians and Jews held in
Oxford, England. 1946. 10 cents. National Conference
of Christians and Jews.
RACE? WHAT THE SCIENTISTS SAY. Compiled
by Caroline Singer. 16 pp. 5 cents.
Outlines fallacy of using "race" to refer to Aryan,
Semitic, Hebrew or Jewish group, fallacy of a "pure"
or "superior" race. National Conference of Christians
REARING CHILDREN OF GOODWILL. Edited by
Sterling W. Brown. 16 pp. 5 cents.
Housewife, teacher, social worker discuss relation of
home, church, and school and community in rearing
children of goodwill. National Conference of Chris-
tians and Jews.
RELIGIOUS BOOK LIST
Two hundred religious books selected by commit'
tees of clergymen, educators, authors, and librarians,
A list divided into four sections — Protestant, Catholic,
Jewish, and Good Will. National Conference of Chris*
tians and Jews. 27 pp. Single copy, free. In quantity,
3 cents each.
SENSE 6? NONSENSE ABOUT RACE. By Ethel J.
This pamphlet is an introduction to the scientific
facts about race, sorting fact from fiction, sense from
nonsense, in many of our notions about the peoples of
the world. Friendship Press, Inc.
THE GROWTH OF GOODWILL. By Everett R.
Clinchy. 64 pp. 10 cents.
Digest of Dr. Clinchy's book, "All in the Name of
God." Presents sketch of American Protestant, Catho-
lic and Jewish relations. National Conference of Chris-
tians and Jews.
TO BIGOTRY NO SANCTION: A DOCUMENT-
ED ANALYSIS OF ANTI-SEMITIC PROPA-
"A source book of information on one of America's
constituent groups against whom the forces of bigotry
have been arrayed in order to serve seditious purposes."
Facts on Jews as patriots, citizens, and employed per-
sons. The American Jewish Committee. Sixth printing,
completely revised. April, 1944. 80 pp. 10 cents.
THE BIGOT IN OUR MIDST. By Gordon W. All-
A psychologist's reflections on frustrations, tabloid
thinking, and projection characteristic of the bigot. An
introduction to the paranoid mental life of bigotry. By
a Harvard social psychologist. Reprinted from The
Commonweal, October 6, 1944. 5 pp. 3 cents.
THE WORLD WE WANT TO LIVE IN. Edited
by Everett R. Clinchy. 98 pp. 10 cents.
Takes up questions concerning economic, political,
educational, and religious aspects of social changes.
National Conference of Christians and Jews.
UNDERSTANDING OUR NEIGHBORS: A FAC-
TUAL SURVEY OF AMERICA'S MAJOR RACE
A fact-packed pamphlet suitable for reference rather
than reading at a sitting. Many dates and names. In-
cludes cultural contributions, social-economic facts.
Southern Regional Council, Atlanta. Rev. Ed., 1945.
32 pp. Single copy, 10 cents. In quantity, $1.00 per
FILMS and SLIDES
16 mm. Sound Motion Pictures
AMERICANS ALL. 20 mins. Rental fee. Springfield
Plan and other NCCJ work. Apply March of Time,
369 Lexington Avenue, New York 17, N. Y.
ARMY CHAPLAIN. 20 mins. National Conference
of Christians and Jews.
DONT BE A SUCKER. 20 mins. Produced by Army
Signal Corps. No rental fee. National Conference of
Christians and Jews.
GREATER VICTORY. 20 mins. 40 page film text
available. No rental fee. Stresses cooperation among
all faiths. National Conference of Christians and Jews.
HOUSE I LIVE IN, THE. 8 mins. The R.K.O. fea-
turette starring Frank Sinatra. No rental fee. National
Conference of Christians and Jews.
NAVY CHAPLAIN. 20 mins. Apply Navy Dept.,
Washington, D. C. No rental fee.
ONE PEOPLE. 12 mins. Rental fee. Apply Anti- Defa-
mation League. Animated cartoon depicts settling of
THE AMERICAN CREED. 3 mins. A Sefenick short,
with nine Hollywood stars. No rental fee. National
Conference of Christians and Jews.
GETTING ACQUAINTED WITH CATHOLIC
NEIGHBORS. Set of kodachrome slides accompanied
by script. No rental fee. Apply National Conference
of Christians and Jews.
GETTING ACQUAINTED WITH JEWISH
NEIGHBORS. Set of kodachrome slides accompanied
by script. No rental fee. Apply National Conference
of Christians and Jews.
In preparation: companion set on Protestantism (available
on date to be announced).
WHO'S A BIGOT?
A self -quiz for everyone who wants to be a good American!
A good American cannot be prejudiced. Neither
can a truly religious person. But many of us do
not recognise our own prejudices. Test yourself
on this quiz. Check your answers below each ques'
tion. When you have completed the quiz, give
yourself 4 for each correct answer. (Be fair,
don't look at the answers). A final score of 60
is passing only. 76 is better. 84 is excellent. 92 or
more means you are a person of complete good
will — and a practicing American.
1. Do you believe that your group is naturally more
honest, moral or industrious than others?
Yes No ,
2. When you don't like a person, do you associate race,
religion or nationality with that dislike?
3. When you criticize an individual, do you include refer-
ence to race or religion in your rebuke?
4. Do you ever speak unfavorably or favorably of the
intelligence or character of a whole group of people?
5. Do you feel perfectly at ease with members of racial,
religious or nationality groups other than your own?
6. Would you vote for a Catholic presidential candidate?
7. Would you vote for a Jewish presidential candidate?
8. Would you vote for a Negro Congressional candidate?
Yes - No
9. Should all individuals be admitted to colleges, univer'
sities and professional schools without respect to race,
nationality or religion?
10. Do you ever say, " — but he's different", when refer-
ring to a member of some racial or religious groups?
11. Should members of different races and religions marry?
Yes. No _
Is not the issue
12. Do you forgive members of your own group more
quickly than members of other groups?
13. Do you pass on to others derogatory stories about
14. When you hear a charge against any group, do you
accept, reject it, or try to check its veracity?
15. Should members of all groups be admitted to any one
Yes. No .
Is not the issue — .
16. Do you think there are certain professions and jobs
which are best fitted for any certain groups?
17. Do you- think that there are any religious or racial
groups in this country who endanger your own position?
18. Do you think that certain groups should be kept from
living in whatever parts of your community they may
Yes. - No _....-
19. Do you want your children to choose their friends
from their own racial and religious groups?
Yes. No -
20. Do you believe that whatever injures one group
eventually injures your own group?
21. Do you believe that you judge every person on his
own record rather than by his group label?
22. Are you aware of the propagandists who spread false
generalizations about whole groups of people?
Yea _ No
23. Do you blame members of other groups, or whole
groups, for your own troubles or for the social troubles
of our world?
Yes ...- No _
24. Do you believe that America is a land of many dif-
ferent peoples united as one nation or a nation of one
kind of people?
Many peoples One kind
25. Do members of groups other than your own irritate
26. Do you think Protestants, Catholics and Jews have
enough in common to work together?
15. This is not the issue.
4. No. Even a good ge' 16. No
nerali^ation is generali- 17 ^
nation and is not true.
24. Many people*
11. This is not the issue. 25. No
12. No 26. Yes
Many people who have taken this quiz were shocked
to learn how bigoted or un-American was their thinking
toward their fellow citizens.
If you, too, find you don't score well — isn't this the
time to do something about it? To start to practice being
a good American? Remember: racial and religious tolerance
are the main roots of democracy . . . and a democracy can
exist only where the individual is willing to fight for it,
in one way or another. As an individual, there is much you
can do . . . must do ... if America is to remain strong,
united, free! Here's a good way to start:
Guard yourself and your children against infection by
racial and religious prejudice.
Stop the peddlers of prejudice right in their tracks by
refusing to spread rumors about those of another race,
creed or color.
Speak up firmly against racial or religious discrimination
whenever it occurs ... in your home, your neighborhood,
your business, your schools.
HUMAN RELATIONS PAMPHLETS
1. Inter-Religious Cooperation In Great Britain*
Discussion of Christian Jewish relations
2. The Growth of Good Will
Presents sketch of American Protestant, Catholic
and Jewish relations
3. Christians Protest Persecution*
Nasi pogroms protested by Christians
4. The World We Want To Live In
Takes up questions concerning economic, politi-
cal, educational and religious aspect of social
5. Why We Fight*
Issues involved in World War II
6. Weekday Religious Education
Summary of Ph.D. thesis discussing weekday
7. Freedom Justice Responsibility
Commission reports on the first International
Conference of Christians and Jews
8. Primer in Intergroup Relations
Discussion of the people making up America
and organisations and materials dealing with
♦Out of print
OF CHRISTIANS AND JEWS
381 Fourth Avenue New York 16, N. Y.
X EACHERS, religious workers, community
leaders and others will find this pamphlet on
the causes and cures of intergroup strife and
hate a practical handbook. The selected bib-
liography of teaching aids and the listing of
national agencies working in this field will be